Deportation of Azerbaijanis from Armenia of 1948-1953
It cannot be named resettlement, will tell more correctly – reprisal. It, this resettlement, occurred thus. The Armenian Diaspora, having taken advantage of an opportunity when in 1943 three states at the Teheran conference discussed the Soviet and Iranian attitudes, has addressed to V. Molotov, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the USSR, with the request to resolve resettlement in the USSR the Armenians living in Iran.
Molotov, having discussed in the same place with Stalin, has authorized for it. In connection with resettlement of foreign Armenians to Armenia G. Arutyunov, having taken advantage of a pretext, has achieved decision-making on violent resettlement of Azerbaijanis from Armenia.
According to the newspaper «Voice of Armenia» (on November 11, 1990), the first decision about violent resettlement of Azerbaijanis from Armenia for accommodation was that Armenians living abroad was accepted in connection with M. J. Baghirov and G. E. Arutyunov’s letter from December 3, 1947. In reply to this reference, the Council of Ministers of the USSR has accepted two decisions. The first, from December 23, 1947, «About resettlement from Armenian SSR collective farmers and other Azerbaijanis in the Kur-Araksin lowland of Azerbaijan SSR». This decision behind I. Stalin’s signature was for Azerbaijanis the unexpected impact, open reprisal. In hastily made document without any argument, introduction and an explanation the requirement, in spite of on any expenses were put, to move all Azerbaijanis from Armenia. The second decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR from March 10, 1948 stated a plan of measures on performance of the first decision.
The decision of the Council of Ministers of the USSR from December 23, 1947 recommended moving in 1948-1950 on a voluntary basis 100 thousand collective farmers and other Azerbaijan population, living in Amenian SSR, in the Kur-Araksin lowland of Azerbaijan SSR. Expression on «the voluntary beginnings» has been used in the decision with special the purpose. In fact, it was a real reprisal. According to the decision 10 thousand persons in 1948, thousand persons in 1949 – 40, thousand persons in 1950 – 50 should move.
Comprehensively investigating on the basis of archival documents these events, Atakhan Pashayev comes to completely true conclusion that persistence of requirements of the Center, hurried the Council of Ministers of the Azerbaijan SSR and Armenian SSR, granting of all one month of term by him for preparation of the plan of extensive actions and messages of information in the Council of Ministers of the USSR were not accidental. The main reason of similar haste was 11 items of the decision clear from last. «To allow Armenian SSR to use the Council of Ministers for accommodation the Armenians who have arrived from abroad to Armenia released structures and apartment houses of the Azerbaijan population in connection with his resettlement in the Kur- Araksin lowland of Azerbaijan SSR». All this is the historical truth. Actually, performance of this decision occurred as follows. Under available information, in 1948 from Armenian SSR in Azerbaijan SSR 1.799 facilities, 7.747 persons have been moved. During the same period of 429 families uniting 2834, persons, subjected to various pressures, have left to Azerbaijan hurriedly, having lost each other. Thus, to autumn of 1948 the number arrived made 10.584 persons. In 1949 instead of 40.000 persons according to the decision – 15.276 persons, in 1948-1950 under the decision from Armenian SSR all it has been moved 8.018 facilities uniting 34.382 persons. Alongside with it, in the same years the Azerbaijan families (7 thousand persons) from more than 1.000 facilities of Armenia have been compelled to run in various districts of Azerbaijan, having left there all public property. If to take, as a whole appears, that in 1948-1953 from Armenian SSR it has violently been moved or has been compelled to leave about 150 thousand persons.
After I. Stalin’s death resettlement has been decisively stopped. At this time began return process. The destiny of ten thousand people violently moved from districts of Akhtin, Garabaghlar, Yekhegnadzor, Azizbayov and other mountain districts in the Kur-Arakhsin valley, appeared very mournful. Each third immigrant who is not got used to a new climate and not having a usual conditions of life, perished as a result of famine and illnesses. Apparently, from archival documents, the part of immigrants had to live in a shed, and the some in one premise with animals. From the means of all allocated for immigrants 45-47 % have been used, apartment houses were not under construction. The big group left of Armenia has independently located in villages Gushchu and Khunushnak district of Martunin MGAR (Mountainous Karabagh Autonomous Province). The Armenian heads of district together with Armenians, heads of the Azerbaijan Commission on resettlement (Brutench, Sevumyan) under various pretexts have expelled them even from district Martunin of Azerbaijan. To any Azerbaijanis who has moved in 1948-1953 from Armenia, did not give to locate in Mountainous Karabagh.
The second tragedy of the period of resettlement for the Azerbaijanis who have arrived from Armenia, was, beginning since 1948, their returning to the native centers. In 1948-1950 to Armenia 376 facilities chairman of the Council of Ministers of Armenia S. Karapetyan (in the telegram from May, 29, 1950) has regarded a message about returning as disaster for Armenia. Actually, it was tragedy for Armenia, whence Azerbaijanis have been expelled to Azerbaijan, and for compelled to come back from Azerbaijan to Armenia the Azerbaijan refugees.
Still, despite of all obstacles, within five years of 40-45 % of the survived Azerbaijanis – immigrants from Armenia have return to native places.
It is important to note one more party of process of resettlement. For accommodation of foreign Armenians, eviction of Azerbaijanis from the grounds of their fathers and grandfathers was provided. On the business, the purpose was to clear Armenia of Azerbaijanis. The fact, with evidence proving it: and today in territory of Armenia there are hundreds villages transformed into ruins in which Azerbaijanis lived. As it was specified on plenum of a Central Committee of Armenia in January 1975, more than 476 villages remain unused. As Armenian nationalists per 1990 have declared even: “the Released grounds and fund in connection with resettlement of Azerbaijanis have not been used by a vein for accommodation of the Armenians who have arrived from abroad”
From all told it is possible to draw a unique conclusion: violent resettlement of Azerbaijanis from Armenia did not set as the purpose accommodation of foreign Armenians, development cotton growing in Azerbaijan. On the contrary, its result was a policy of creation of mononational Armenian Republic, the old dream of dashnaks. Also in 1948-1953, they failed for it.
At the end of 1950 began a new stage of a survival of Azerbaijanis from Armenia. Characteristic features of this stage will be that slogans of internationalism and friendship of peoples were in words proclaimed, and opportunities of residing and development of Azerbaijanis in Armenia in practice were more and more limited.
For this purpose, the following actions were carried out:
1.The moral terror carried out against intellectual forces, intelligence. It was showed first that in the mass order higher educational institutions existing up to this time have been closed, technical schools, press organs in the Azerbaijan language.
The Yerevan Pedagogical Institute named after Kh. Abovyan established in 1930, four faculties (the Azerbaijan language and the literature, a history, geography, physical and mathematical) the Azerbaijan sector both on daytime, and on correspondence branches have been closed. Only in 1955 instead of them one Azerbaijan group consisting of 25 persons has been organized.
The Yerevan Azerbaijan pedagogical technical school which established in 1925 playing the important role in preparation of the pedagogical staff in Armenia, need in which it was at that time felt very sharply, has been closed and transferred to Hanlar district of Azerbaijan SSR.
Concrete results of similar moral terror became the following: annually Azerbaijan schools in Armenia ended on the average 5000 graduates and as to continue education in republic it was not represented possible, the most part of them has been compelled for continuation of education to leave for other republics, is especial to Azerbaijan. As young experts further graduated, other higher educational institutions were not provided with work in native places and new migration of Azerbaijanis from Armenia began. To tell the truth, the statistical information on migration of Azerbaijanis from Armenia in 1950 – are absent 1980, however all know, that these years number of the families which have moved only to Azerbaijan from the Azerbaijan villages of Armenia, was twice more, than the rest there by 1988. For example, from 300 families Sheherjik village of Kafan district to 1988-year 80 families lived only in Baku and Sumgait. Such examples are hundreds.
2.Since 1960, the Azerbaijanis, working on supervising posts, have been replaced with Armenians. Without the slightest grounds, the first secretaries of district committees of party Basarkechar, Krasnoselo, Garabaghlar, Zangibasar, and Vadi districts (where 75-90 % of the population is Azerbaijanis) have been released from posts, and in ten districts where Azerbaijanis lived together with the Armenians, the second or third secretaries of district committees of a party dismissing only that were Azerbaijanis. The drama theatre named after J. Jabbarli (till 1966) has been closed and the newspapers printed in the Azerbaijan language in Sisiyan, Gafan, Megrin, Garabaghlar, Vadi, Zangibasar, Kalinin, and Ijevan districts, and also a number of publishing houses have been closed at the republican ministries and the departments which printed the literature in the Azerbaijan language.
3.One of the major reasons caused a deep conflict between Armenians and Azerbaijanis, Azerbaijanis of Armenia resulted in moral terror, began celebrating in 1965 at a republican level of the 50-anniversary so-called «the Armenian genocide ». It was carried out under influence of the Armenian Diaspora and not without help of A. Mikoyan. Within the whole year from the date of an pronounce of the decision and till April, 24, 1965 all mass media, publishing houses have been occupied with work in one direction – antiturkish, antiazerbaijan propagation, instigation, threats. During long years party of “Dashnaksutun” taking place in an underground these years began to operate openly. As an occasion to expansion of activity dashnak, the 50-anniversary so- called «the Armenian genocide», concurrent with the 100-anniversary from birthday of one of members dashnak has served a party, the hated enemy of Azerbaijan people, executioner Andranik. Armenia (1st secretary of Central Committee of CP (b) Armenia was at that time J.Zorabjan) again by help of A. Mikoyan has achieved the sanction to celebrate the anniversary of Andranik.
All republican newspapers including leaving in the Azerbaijan language “Soviet of Ermenistan” have celebrated the anniversary of Andranik as hero of Armenian people (articles published without a picture, but during anniversary evening at 12 o’clock after the coordination with Moscow, the sanction to the publication of a photo of the executioner have achieved). The 400 thousand meeting, which has been held in Yerevan on April 23, 1965 in connection with the 50-anniversary of genocide, posters that there were carried, have clearly shown the purpose of this movement. On posters, such inscriptions drew attention: «the Western Armenia (i.e. Anatoly) should belong to Armenia», «Mountainous Garabagh is ours», «Nakhchivan is a ground of Armenia», «Armenians, it is the time to revenge for 1915, unite! », etc. All this once again confirms that the Karabagh Movement is not generation of reorganization as approve of kaputikyans, balayans, khandzadyans, and creation 50-60-years prescription, until 1960 working secretly, and then turned into the nationalist movement openly sowing enmity between the nations.
The first deputy of chief of the main investigatory management of Office of Public Prosecutor of the USSR V. I. Ilyukhin gives completely exact information in his interview about a history of the Karabagh movement. «We have closely engaged in investigation of activity of committee “Karabagh “. Activity of notorious committee is not harmless, as it seemed firstly too much. In addition, «the Karabagh movement» is not a child of reorganization as try to present now it the some people. The first mentions of it apply to 1940-1950”.
4.The decision of the Center on creation of national encyclopedias has been met in republics with the big satisfaction. In addition, here Armenia has made exception. Armenians used the edition of the encyclopedia for the even greater kindling interethnic enmity, strengthening national egoism and a national psychosis. Have begun that with on power of the Armenian lobby in Moscow increase have achieved on two volume 10-languid encyclopedia already authorized in republics. From the first volume up to the last, the encyclopedia is penetrated with one main idea: Armenia – the great state, Armenians – the rare nation, they disseminated on worldwide. The genocide of 1915 has threatened the Armenian nation of disappearance. Therefore in the encyclopedia is given the brief history both existing, and all Armenian villages not existing in Turkey, and is specified, that all their population is destroyed by Turkishes. The slaughter accomplished by Armenians in Turkey, is attributed to Turkish. Any Armenian, having read article “Armenian Genocide” (“the big slaughter), can take the weapon and start to be at war. To understand excited at the Armenian youth hatred to Turkish, i.e. to Azerbaijanis, is enough about to read this articles of encyclopedia. In the volume, published in 1970th, about villages of Mountainous Karabagh also is written article under the name «Villages in MGAR», but their belonging to Azerbaijan is not underlined.
5.Examples spent for republic in all districts, where Azerbaijanis, divisions to a national attribute lived so many that it is impossible to list all of them here. We shall name only the some people: absence of school buildings in the Azerbaijan villages, absence of roads, and the relation to Azerbaijanis as to people of the second grade. In spite of the fact that water and gas highways passed through Azerbaijan villages, Azerbaijanis could not use them, and thousand similar phenomena.
Now almost all world press, mass media of all former Union have made noise, as if in Azerbaijan, especially in Mountainous Karabagh, striking at rights of Armenians that compelled them to stir to action for clearing. It is radically incorrect. First of all the world should know, that the Karabagh movement, committee “Karabagh” have arisen not in Mountainous Karabagh. As it was already specified above, this movement which has begun in 1940th in Yerevan, long time operated illegally, in 1960th was legalized, constantly being engaged in processing of population MGAR (in 1960 team of Kaputikyan, for the first time having visited in Karabagh, has brought in Moscow an attention to the question on preservation of the Armenian monuments) and only in 1980 has got over in Karabagh. This movement, as before, copes from Yerevan. Now it is lifted on the state level.
To prove groundlessness of statements of the Armenian nationalists that as if in Azerbaijan against Armenians the policy of infringement to a national attribute was conducted, we will address to historic facts. While in 1918 in Armenia Azerbaijanis made 45 percents, i.e. 575 thousand persons of the population of republic, in Azerbaijan in 1922 was all 240 thousand Armenian population. In 1979, on the contrary number of Azerbaijanis in Armenia has decreased more, than three times, having made 165 thousand persons. In Azerbaijan number of Armenians, having increased more than twice, has reached 487 thousand persons. Truly, the Armenian nationalists have got used to put always the facts on its head. Hiding the truth about a life of Azerbaijanis in Armenia, the slaves that have appeared in position, they spread rumours about as if infringement of the rights of Armenians having a place in Azerbaijan. It is asked, where there was a distinction on a nationality – in Azerbaijan or Armenia? After 1988, the number of Azerbaijanis in Armenia is equal to zero. However, in Azerbaijan and now lives more than 20 thousand Armenians. Really, the percent .of a gain of the Azerbaijani population always was approximately in 2-3 times above, than at Armenians.
As researchers, since time of establishment of «Heroine Mother» rank ascertains, under Decrees of a Supreme Council of the USSR in Armenia from everyone 10 mothers – heroes of 70-80 % were Azerbaijanis. However, very a pity was always underestimated. Many Azerbaijanis living in villages with the mixed population, and hundreds Azerbaijan cattle breeders living in the Armenian villages, were not brought at all in lists.
Researchers of this theme, certainly, in the future will prove, that number expelled of Armenia in 1988- 1989 of Azerbaijanis as it is underlined in various sources, not to 165 thousand, not to 189 thousand and at all to 200 thousand persons, and is greater. The abandoned territory as it is specified in some printed sources not 6000 km2, and as show calculations, is more – 9800 km2. It is necessary to mean that from 36 districts located in present territory of Armenia, in 33 until 1918 lived Azerbaijanis. On administrative-territorial division in the past in these districts were more than 1.200 Azerbaijan villages, and in 1988 in 22 districts remained only 185 Azerbaijan villages.
http://karabakh-doc. azerall. info